Arts & Entertainment, Writing

Discussion With Marie Howe: William Shakespeare

Billy Collins

Lesson time 08:58 min

Billy and Marie discuss how the speaker in William Shakespeare’s “Sonnet 73” uses metaphor to bid a final farewell to his beloved.

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Topics include: Discussion With Marie Howe: William Shakespeare


[MUSIC PLAYING] - "That time of year, thou mayst in me behold. When yellow leaves, or none, or a few, do hang upon those boughs which shake against the cold, bare ruin'd choirs, where late the sweet birds sang. In me though see'st the twilight of such day as after sunset faded in the west, which by and by black night doth take away, death's second self, that seals up all in rest. In me thou see'st the glowing of such fire that on the ashes of his youth doth lie, as a death-bed whereon it must expire, consum'd with that which it was nourish'd by. This thou perceiv'st, which makes thy love more strong, to love that well which thou must leave ere long." - It's beautiful. And this really brings in metaphor, too-- "bare ruin'd choirs," "this time of year, thou mayst in me behold." - Yeah. - You know, it begins by comparing himself to a certain time of year. - Right. - Autumn, close to winter-- almost winter, no snow. - "Yellow leaves, or none, or a few, do hang." So the first four-- there is usually, in a Shakespeare sonnet, there are three quatrains. And then there's the couplet. So just to break it down, in the first quatrain, he's-- well, he's aging. And he's nearer to death than his beloved, let's say. So in the first four lines, he is part of the year. He is the latter part of the year, the fall or early winter. And in the second part, he's the latter part of a day. - Yeah. - So first is the year and a season. The next is a time of day. And then he kind of runs out of diurnal things, then he turns to fire. So he is a, as we would say, a dying fire-- the fire kind of in embers. And then, the couplet says, this-- the whole sonnet, what I just said-- you understand, you "perceiv'st." And then there's this kind of trick. He says, "which makes thy love more strong." - Yeah. - Well, why would-- if he describes himself as fading, and decrepit, and ancient, and it's embers, and the leaves or the trees are bare-- why would you love that more? And it's kind of a, huh? That's paradoxical. And then he gives the killer, "To love that well which thou must leave ere long." - "Thou must leave ere long." Who's leaving who? - Oh, he's leaving. - Yeah, I know. But, "thou must leave ere long." - Oh, "To love that well which thou"-- OK, she has to leave. She's leaving him, but-- - But he is the one who's really leaving. He turns it-- he turns that funny thing twice. - Right. That she's leaving. - "Thou must leave ere long." Well, of course she will leave him, but he's the one who's actually-- - Leaving. - And she's gonna stay. - She is remaining. - Right there. - There's a little-- actually, a Korean poem that says when a couple has loved that strongly, and when the one dies, the one left behind is truly dead. - Of course. - Yeah. Not the dead, they're gone. - So "To love that well." That's an interesting pronoun. "To love that well, which thou must leave ere long." Wh...

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Known for his wit and wisdom, former U.S. Poet Laureate Billy Collins is one of America’s most beloved contemporary poets. In his MasterClass, Billy teaches you to appreciate the emotional pull of poetry. Learn his approach to exploring subjects, incorporating humor, and finding your voice. Discover the profound in the everyday, and let poetry lead you to the unexpected.

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Billy Collins

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