From Margaret Atwood's MasterClass

Research and Historical Accuracy

Getting details right is critical in historical fiction and can lend believability to any story. Margaret emphasizes this point but also shows how to avoid letting research slow you down.

Topics include: The Importance of Accuracy • Sources for Research • Historical Accuracy in Alias Grace • Unearthing the Research • Costume Accuracy • A Note on the History of Underpants


Getting details right is critical in historical fiction and can lend believability to any story. Margaret emphasizes this point but also shows how to avoid letting research slow you down.

Topics include: The Importance of Accuracy • Sources for Research • Historical Accuracy in Alias Grace • Unearthing the Research • Costume Accuracy • A Note on the History of Underpants

Margaret Atwood

Teaches Creative Writing

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I think if you research too much ahead of time, it's going to clog things up. You find out such interesting things that you long to put them in. But quite frequently, they sidetrack the plot. So you want the details to be accurate, but you don't want them looking like research. And by the way, let me tell you about the shoelaces. So I like to write first and then research the details that I've put in to see if I've got them right. I find that much more helpful than having a huge stack of research that can bog you down, if you like, and slow up the actual writing. [MUSIC PLAYING] It's important to get those details right, because if you get them wrong, it throws off the reader's belief in your story. I once got a letter from a woman who had read "Alias Grace," an older women. She said, that's not how you make butter. Luckily, I had "Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management" at my side, in which there are about 50 ways of making butter, one of them being the one described. But if you've got one of those things wrong, it throws the reader off. And they get sidetracked. And believe me, if it's not accurate, somebody is going to write you a letter-- or these days, do an internet posting that begins, you idiot. So it's best to check your facts and factoids and even such things as when did people start using plastic garbage bags, what color were the refrigerators in 1960, when were pantyhose invented. You may think you know these things. But you really should go back and double check. And a wonderful source of information are old magazines, especially the ads. You can find out a lot that way. Your goal is to keep your reader believing in your story, even though both of you know it's fiction and it says fiction on the outside. [MUSIC PLAYING] The internet is your friend mostly, just as the reference library is your friend mostly. But just because it's on the internet or because it's in the reference library doesn't mean it's true. It's always good to cross check and use more than one reference. If you're using old magazines with ads in them, be advised that the ads aren't how people actually lived. The ads are the advertisers' idea of how they thought people ought to want to live, which was a different kind of thing. But mail order catalogs are pretty good. That's closer to how people probably really lived in some areas of their lives-- old diaries, letters, those kinds of things. Unfortunately, diary writers and letters never wrote down the most obvious things that you might want to know because those things were known by everybody at the time. So why would you write them down? Suppose that we're in the future and everyone has forgotten what a toaster is. Nobody will have written down what it was because everybody knew. But then they forgot. So if you are a diary writer or keeping a journal, do us a favor. Do the people in the future a favor. Tell them about some of these ordinary things that you did every d...

The art of powerful storytelling

Called the “Prophet of Dystopia,” Margaret Atwood is one of the most influential literary voices of our generation. In her first-ever online writing class, the author of The Handmaid’s Tale teaches how she crafts compelling stories, from historical to speculative fiction, that remain timeless and relevant. Explore Margaret’s creative process for developing ideas into novels with strong structures and nuanced characters.


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This Master Class has helped me regain focus on my project. Margaret Atwood's insights are brilliant and very well put across with her wit and dry sense of humour. I loved this course!!

The lessons and tips Ms. Atwood shared was priceless. Her knowledge was outstanding, unmatched. She was so personable, I felt she was speaking directly to me. I will put her tips and advice to work immediately. Wish I had 100 hours to spend with her. Thank you, MC!

I had literature in the school, the high school and the University, and the program for all three was the same, so even although one of my teachers was really good, she hadn't much room left to do her job. So this is by far a better literature course, than any of those annual official courses. Besides it's like chatting with her at home answering all your questions, as none has been forgotten. ;-)

I am planning to go back through all the lectures and do all the assignments. I went through this class quickly to get an overview. Ms Atwood has given wonderful links, suggestions on books to read, etc. I will forever be grateful. I have signed up for a year of various Master Classes, but if no other teacher gives what Atwood does, my money will till have been well spent. Thank you Ms. Atwood.


John D.

It was good to hear about how Margaret Atwood encourages us to write first and research later. I can see how checking each fact as you go along breaking up the flow and spontaneity of the writing. And who knew about the history of the underpant(s)? Fascinating.


I thought I was going overboard with some of the research I'm doing for my own book, but this lesson showed me it's wise not to leave any stone unturned. Thanks for the reassurance!

Chris W.

What I found fascinating was Ms. Atwood’s interest in NOT being viewed as fanciful in The Handmaid’s Tale. She notes that she wanted to make sure that anything that happens in the book has happened somewhere in history, and my honest reaction was, “Who cares?” Even if some detail had no historical basis, it’d still be an incredible novel, and most people won’t know the historical antecedents anyway. I get wanting to have historical accuracy in a period piece, but I don’t get it for speculative fiction.

Caetlin W.

There are multitudes of tiny details in historical fiction that make that type of writing so challenging. I liked Ms. Atwood's suggestion to just write the book first and do the research afterward to fill in the blanks. I know I would end up getting lost in some rabbit hole if I tried to do all the research I thought I might need before ever writing a word. I would have too much material that I may or may not be able to use, and doing the research before writing the book would most certainly influence my writing. That isn't always a bad thing, but it is definitely something to think about.

Lydia N.

So may little things I did not think of. For example, you mention the color of the refrigerator. If I have someone smashing up against one in the 60s, I might want to contrast that color with blood. But I don't know WHAT COLORS there were back then. That is just an example, but this type of research is interesting and not only interesting but significant to my story.

J'nee H.

The History of Costumes that she mentioned is duly noted for future fact checking. She is also spot on once again with her example of the toaster. Similarly, I was eating a piece of corn on the cob "America style" with two hands. I was biting off buttery bits from left to right and then making a "ding" sound when I got to the end. Then I returned to the left with a jerk and began the process again. (I was just being silly doing something I did when I was younger.) However, my children thought I was certifiably crazy. It didn't dawn on me that they are from the key board generation and had little exposure to a manual or electric typewriter. Without the historical context-- I understandably was acting like a strange bird. So yet another great lesson that the devil is in the details and her historical research makes her stories so very believable.

Cameron C.

Her glee about those details about early designs and use of underpants cracked me up.

Marilee S.

Whew - lots of details that I never really thought about. In my book about my year in China, I attended two different weddings - a country wedding and one in the city. I found many brides and grooms came to a large Catholic Church (one of the few Mao didn't demolish.) The grounds were very beautiful and perfect for elegant photos. Many brides wore the traditional red gowns, which surprised me. Under the gowns, I could see tennis shoes. Guests were often not dressed as one might imagine - get out of here, wedding garb has been provided, but you're not wearing it. Didn't matterto the Chinese.

Glenna A.

All so very helpful. Unfortunately, many times I click on, "Lesson Discussion", and nothing happens, it frequently sends me back to a previous lesson. I also can not easily access the pdf.

A fellow student

Research has always been one of my favorite things to do, and is no doubt the reason I have eight unfinished novel manuscripts! I'm in the middle of one right now, so Margaret's advice could not come at a better time. I was just wailing yesterday that there was just too much material, and I was going to work on something else. Now, after seeing this lesson, I'll just keep writing and do the research at the end. I've been an editor for years as well, and I've noticed these past few years that new authors believe it's the editor's job to do the fact-checking. Being the perfectionist I am, I often did the checking for them, usually at financial cost to myself because I hadn't figured in that much research time. I'll feel confident now to let authors know that historical accuracy is their job, not mine. Cheers, Margaret, for a wonderful lesson, and a wonderful class. I'm getting quite sad that it's nearly over, but I do have my workbook and can keep reading everything you've ever written. I just finished "Payback" and found it absolutely timely. It's eerie how you predict the future we're facing now. Any chance you'll have a reissue of it? The world needs it more now than ever before, for in it you share a vision of how it could be. I think that's what makes you such an extraordinary writer. Thank you for sharing your wit and wisdom by doing this MasterClass.