A conjunctive adverb is a part of speech that bridges two independent clauses in a single sentence. Sometimes called an adverbial conjunction, conjunctive adverbs are unique from other adverbial parts of speech. Adverbs typically modify other verbs, adverbs, or adjectives. Conjunctive adverbs, meanwhile, act more like conjunctions, with the second clause modifying the first. Conjunctive adverbs often follow a semicolon or em-dash and are followed by a comma. This is the case for the conjunctive adverb “eventually” in the example sentence “He had been practicing soccer for years; eventually, he made the school team.”\nSome common conjunctive adverbs include “however,” “instead,” “therefore,” “furthermore,” and “additionally.” These make up but a partial list of conjunctive adverbs; consider the usage in the sample sentences below:\n\n1. __They decided to be environmentally conscious and use less electricity; moreover, their electric bill had been skyrocketing.__: “Moreover” acts as the conjunctive adverb in this sentence. A comma follows the word to tee up the second clause.\n2. __She always studies—as such, she tends to get good grades.__: Here, an em-dash is used to connect the sentence’s two independent clauses, acting as a semicolon would.\n3. __He wasn’t in the mood to go to the party; besides, the nearby movie theater was screening his favorite film.__: Besides is another common conjunctive adverb, modifying the first clause and ushering in the second.\n\nYou can use conjunctive adverbs to show cause and effect. The first clause will set up an idea or event, and the second clause, bridged by a semicolon, will expand on it.\n\n1. __Start with an independent clause__. A conjunctive adverb follows an independent clause, a clause that is a stand-alone sentence. Think of this as the cause of the second clause’s effect. Start with a simple example sentence, such as “She rides her bike every morning.”\n2. __Add a semicolon__. Semicolons ensure a smooth transition between the first clause and the rest of the sentence. Add a semicolon instead of a period after your sentence to set up the need for a conjunctive adverb and a second clause. (Using a comma where a semicolon should be used creates a punctuation error called a comma splice, a type of run-on sentence.) Now, our example sentence will read, “She rides her bike every morning;” which is incomplete without a conjunctive adverb and second cause.\n3. __Choose a conjunctive adverb__. Conjunctive adverbs act as modifiers to your first clause and bridge it to the second. The one you select will inform the sentence’s tone and outcome. Choosing a conjunctive adverb like “however,” “similarly,” or “for example” all tee up the second clause. The example sentence “She rides her bike every morning; therefore,” is almost done—a final independent clause will round out the complete sentence.\n4. __End with a final independent clause__. With “therefore” as the chosen conjunctive adverb, complete the example sentence logically: “She rides her bike every morning; therefore, she is ready for the race.” With two independent clauses and a conjunctive verb, this is a [compound sentence.](https://www.masterclass.com/articles/compound-sentence-guide)\nBecome a better writer with the [MasterClass Annual Membership](https://www.masterclass.com). Gain access to exclusive video lessons taught by the world’s best, including James Patterson, Neil Gaiman, Walter Mosley, Margaret Atwood, Joyce Carol Oates, Dan Brown, and more.\nLearn how to use conjunctive adverbs to combine independent clauses and create compound sentences.