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What Does Dialogue Look Like?
Dialogue usually appears in quotation marks, as in the example above, but some writers get creative with their punctuation.
Some writers use an em-dash to notate a line of dialogue, like this:
—What do you want for dinner? Jack asked his friend John.
Some writers don’t notate dialogue at all. For example, Nobel Prize-winning author José Saramago treats his dialogue just like the rest of the narration, like this:
Jack asked his friend John, What do you want for dinner, and John replied, I don’t know, you decide.
If you put your dialogue in quotation marks, note that punctuation—like periods and question marks—go inside the quotation marks.
If a character is quoting someone else, you put the quote inside single quotation marks, within the double quotation marks, like this:
“When I asked Jane about it, her response was, ‘Just not sushi.’”
Dialogue vs. Exposition
In fiction, there are two types of narration: dialogue and exposition.
Dialogue refers to the things that characters say.
Exposition refers to sequences of descriptive narration.
Unless you’re writing a film script or a stage play, it’s best to maintain a balance between dialogue and exposition. Try breaking up long passages of exposition with short dialogue— even a sentence or two can be refreshing. If you have a very long section of dialogue, it’s good to insert brief sections of exposition to keep your reader grounded in time and place.
Rules of Dialogue Writing
1) Dialogue should reflect your character’s background.
To get dialogue right, you must understand how your characters speak. This is likely influenced by where they come from, their social class, upbringing, and myriad other factors. Speech and tone are always bound up in what has happened and is happening to a character.
William Shakespeare was exceptionally deft at encoding his characters’ speech patterns with these social markers, and for blending these idioms within a single play.
2) Be true to the period.
If you are setting your story in the past, your dialogue should accurately reflect word choice, idioms, and speech patterns of the period. Words, like clothes, go in and out of style. Conversations need to be specific to the time you’re writing in without seeming contrived.
3) Desire should motivate your characters to speak.
When your characters are speaking, they should be trying to get something from one another, or make a power play. When writing dialogue, ask yourself what your characters want. (This is a crucial aspect of character development.)
Ideally, you will know your characters well enough to sense not only what they want but how they would express their desires verbally. Will they be blunt or subtly manipulative? Will they be angry, or do they always keep their cool?
4) Fictional characters don’t say “uh.”
In real life, speech has lots of padding or “stuffing”: words like umms and yeahs. But good dialogue in fiction must be both more incisive and selective. It is shorn down to reveal what people want from one another, reveal character, and dramatize power struggles.
One of the most common mistakes when writing dialogue is to write down exactly what people say most of the time. This will probably be dull, as it will be full of “um” and “ah” and “you know” and “like” and so forth. Rambling, repetitious, and not very sparky.
5) There’s always subtext.
There are often wide gaps between what people say and what they are thinking, between what one understands and what one refuses to hear. These gaps can collectively be referred to as subtext, and they are valuable territory for the fiction writer. Stay alert to them, and let them generate drama in the scenes you write.
Dan Brown’s Tips for Writing Great Dialogue
Dan Brown is a master of writing entertaining dialogue. Here are his top tips for writing effective dialogue.
Allow dialogue to encourage disagreement between your characters.
It’s more interesting when characters are experiencing tension or sharing different points of view. Like the polyphonic structure of an orchestra, each person will bring their own “sound” to a conversation, but the different notes should all work together.
Keep characters physically moving during dialogue.
For example, if your characters are on the run and having a conversation in an airport, you can show the numerous distractions they might notice as they walk nervously through the airport. By interspersing brief distractions (clumsy passengers, stern security guards) between segments of dialogue, you prevent the pacing from becoming monotonous.
The distractions can also augment the mood (danger and suspicion) and can pull your characters back into action.
“Said” is enough.
There is a quiet battle going on among writers regarding dialogue attribution (also known as dialogue tags). This refers to the phrases you use when describing who is speaking—i.e. “he said,” and “she said.” Some writers prefer to use more descriptive words to replace “said” or to put an adverb before the word “said.” But generally speaking, you can write an entire novel using only “said,” without having to resort to more descriptive verbs like “shouted,” “seethed,” or “consoled.”
Stephen King, whose famous opinion that “the road to hell is paved with adverbs,” finds them especially annoying in dialogue attribution. (Tags like “he said cheekily” drive him crazy.) In suspense writing specifically, Dan advises you to keep your language from jarring the reader out of the story. This means sticking to “he said” and “she said,” and keeping adverbs or other words for “said” to a minimum.
Great Dialogue Examples, Recommended by Margaret Atwood
The following are examples of the great dialogue, as recommended by Margaret Atwood:
Charles Dickens. While the heroes and heroines tend to be a bit wooden, the lesser (usually rural or Cockney) figures reflect the way people really talked. He was the first after Shakespeare to do this.
Any of Elmore Leonard’s thrillers.
Ulysses (1922) by James Joyce
Chicken (2018) by Lynn Crosbie
Get in Trouble (2015) by Kelly Link
Lives of Girls and Women (1971) by Alice Munro
Prompt to Practice Writing Dialogue:
Go to a public place where people tend to talk to one another—like a cafe, bar, or public transportation—and spend 10 minutes eavesdropping on a conversation. Record everything they say and how they say it as specifically as you can.
Later, transcribe this conversation into a word processing document as faithfully as you can. What conclusions can you draw from what you heard? Who has more power? Who wants what? Who was listening more closely? Did someone interrupt the other or ignore them?
In a new document, select the part of the conversation that most interested you— whether it was a few lines, or a particularly charged interruption—and use it as the seed of a fictional scene. Here, you are free to cut filler; condense meaning and change the words; and add gesture, silence, and subtext to reveal these characters and what they want to the reader.
After answering these questions, did a narrative about these strangers begin to form in your imagination? If so, write a short story about it!