White sugar, also called granulated sugar or table sugar, is made from refined sugar cane or sugar beets. First, food processors juice the sugar cane or beets, and then they boil the cane juice to evaporate the water. The raw sugar is then clarified in centrifuges that spin the sugar at high speeds to remove the sticky brown syrup that coats sugar crystals, known as molasses. Once the food processors have refined the sugar, they run it through a natural carbon filtration system to remove impurities and further whiten the sugar granules. The resulting table sugar is chemically pure sucrose. [Sugar](https://www.masterclass.com/articles/all-the-different-types-of-sugar-culinary-uses-of-sugar) is considered a natural carbohydrate.\n\nGranulated white sugar and other natural sugars are sweeteners used in all types of foods, including baked goods, sweetened beverages, and savory dishes. It’s worth noting that not all granulated white sugar is vegan. Some sugar companies use bone char to whiten the granules. If you prefer vegan sugar, look for unrefined sugar or organic sugar, such as coconut sugar.\nProcessed table sugar comes in slightly different variations and sizes of white sugar, including:\n\n1. __Granulated sugar__: Also commonly called regular sugar or white sugar, granulated sugar is refined sugar that food processors whiten and grind into a size similar to table salt. Baking recipes commonly call for this type of sugar.\n2. __Superfine sugar__: Sometimes called caster sugar, superfine sugar is processed nearly exactly the same as white table sugar, but the sugar refinery grinds superfine sugar into a smaller crystal size than regular table sugar. Desserts such as meringue, mousse, or whipped cream often call for superfine sugar. And it’s a common choice for sweetening cold drinks like iced tea or lemonade because the fine crystals dissolve much more quickly than those of table sugar.\n3. __Powdered sugar__: Also called confectioners’ sugar, powdered sugar is a finely ground white sugar (it’s ground to a powder) mixed with a small amount of cornstarch (to prevent caking). Powdered sugar is an ingredient in frosting, icing, and creamy desserts because it dissolves rapidly.\n4. __Sugar cubes__: These square pieces of sugar are made of plain white sugar pressed together into a cube form. You typically use them to sweeten hot drinks.\nIn addition to white granulated sugar, you might see other common sugars in the grocery store baking aisle. While all forms of granular or loose sugar are made from sugar beets or sugar cane, the sugar refining process varies greatly.\n\n1. __Brown sugar__: To make the most common brown sugar, food manufacturers add [molasses](https://www.masterclass.com/articles/a-guide-to-cooking-with-molasses) back into refined white sugar. The moisture in the molasses makes brown sugar softer than white sugar. Dark brown sugar, which contains more molasses, is darker, stickier, and has a stronger molasses flavor than light brown sugar, which has a mild caramel flavor.\n2. __Turbinado sugar__: Also referred to as raw sugar, [turbinado sugar](https://www.masterclass.com/articles/turbinado-sugar-guide) is a lightly refined sugar made from the first pressing of sugar cane. It retains more flavor and natural molasses versus white sugar and also has larger crystals. \n3. __Muscovado sugar__: Unlike white sugar, muscovado is unrefined sugar and it retains its natural molasses. To produce muscovado, food processors heat the sugar cane plant and extract the liquid. They then allow the liquid to mostly evaporate, creating a sugar with a dark brown color and a strong molasses flavor.\n4. __Demerara sugar__: Similar to muscovado sugar, [demerara sugar](https://www.masterclass.com/articles/what-is-demerara-sugar) is minimally processed and made from evaporated sugarcane juice so it retains its natural molasses. Demerara has a very large sugar crystal size and is dry like white sugar.\nSugar is hygroscopic and absorbs moisture, which is great for baking but bad for storage since the sugar will clump together when exposed to moisture or placed in an area with high humidity. To avoid a negative outcome, store the sugar in an airtight container, and place it in a cool, dry location.\nBecome a better chef with the [MasterClass Annual Membership](https://www.masterclass.com). Gain access to exclusive video lessons taught by the world’s best, including Dominique Ansel, Gabriela Cámara, Chef Thomas Keller, Yotam Ottolenghi, Gordon Ramsay, Alice Waters, and more.\nWhite sugar comes from refined sugar cane or sugar beets, out of which food processors extract sucrose, a natural sweetener.